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Then demonstrate how adding and subtracting numbers (that require regrouping)on paper is just like adding and subtracting numbers that their poker chipsrepresent that require exchanging. This is a good time to introduce, somewhatcasually, the algorithm for adding and subtracting numerals "on paper"using the "trading" or "borrowing/carrying" technique. You may want tostick representative poker chips above your columns on the chalk board,or have them use crayons to put the poker chip colors above their columnson their paper (using, say, yellow for white if they have white paper).Show them how they can "exchange" numerals in their various columns bycrossing out and replacing those they are borrowing from, carrying to,adding to, or regrouping. (This is sometimes somewhat difficult for themat first because at first they have a difficult time keeping their substitutionsstraight and writing them where they can notice and read them and rememberwhat they mean. They tend to start getting scratched-out numbers and "new"numbers in a mess that is difficult to deal with. But once they see theneed to be more orderly, and once you show them some ways they can be moreorderly, they tend to be able to do all right.) Let them do problems onpaper and check their own answers with poker chips. Give them lots of practice,and, as time goes on, make certain they can all do the algorithmic calculationfairly formally that they can also understand what they aredoing if they were to stop and think about it.

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