ADVANTAGES

They shall also enjoy equal treatment in the inheritance of property.
(8) Women shall have a right to equality in employment, promotion, pay, and the transfer of pension entitlements.
(9) To prevent harm arising from pregnancy and childbirth and in order to safeguard their health, women have the right of access to family planning education, information and capacity.


(1) Every child has the right:
(a) To life;
(b) To a name and nationality;
(c) To know and be cared for by his or her parents or legal guardians;
(d) Not to be subject to exploitative practices, neither to berequired nor permitted to perform work which may be hazardous or harmful to his or her education, health or well-being;
(e) To be free of corporal punishment or cruel and inhumane treatment in schools and other institutions responsible for the care of children.
(2) In all actions concerning children undertaken by public and private welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the primary consideration shall be the best interest of the child.
(3) Juvenile offenders admitted to corrective or rehabilitative institutions, and juveniles who become wards of the State or who are placed in public or private orphanages, shall be kept separately from adults.
(4) Children born out of wedlock shall have the same rights as children born of wedlock.
(5) The State shall accord special protection to orphans and shall encourage the establishment of institutions which ensure and promote their adoption and advance their welfare, and education.


(1) Everyone has the right to bring a justiciable matter to, and to obtain a decision or judgment by, a court of law or any other competent body with judicial power.
(2) The decision or judgment referred to under sub-article 1 of this article may also be sought by:
(a) Any association representing the Collective or individual interest of its members; or
(b) Any group or person who is a member of, or represents a group with similar interests.


(1) Every Ethiopian national, without any discrimination based on colour, race, nation, nationality, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion or other status, has the following rights:
(a) To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly and through freely chosen representatives;
(b) On the attainment of 18 years of age, to vote in accordance with law;
(c) To vote and to be elected at periodic elections to any office at any level of government; elections shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors.
(2) The right of everyone to be a member of his own will in a political organization, labour union, trade organization, or employers' or professional association shall be respected if he or she meets the special and general requirements stipulated by such organization.
(3) Elections to positions of responsibility with any of the organizations referred to under sub-article 2 of this article shall be conducted in a free and democratic manner.
(4) The provisions of sub-articles 2 and 3 of this article shall apply to civic organizations which significantly affect the public interest.


(1) Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has an unconditional right to self-determination, including the right to secession.
(2) Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has the right to speak, to write and to develop its own language; to express, to develop and to promote its culture; and to preserve its history.
(3) Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has the right to a full measure of self-government which includes the right to establish institutions of government in the territory that it inhabits and to equitable representation in state and Federal governments.
(4) The right to self-determination, including secession, of every Nation, Nationality and People shall come into effect:
(a) When a demand for secession has been approved by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Legislative Council of the Nation, Nationality or People concerned;
(b) When the Federal Government has organized a referendum which must take place within three years from the time it received the concerned council's decision for secession;
(c) When the demand for secession is supported by majority vote in the referendum;
(d) When the Federal Government will have transferred its powers to the council of the Nation, Nationality or People who has voted to secede; and
(e) When the division of assets is effected in a manner prescribed by law.
(5) A "Nation, Nationality or People" for the purpose of this Constitution, is a group of people who have or share large measure of a common culture or similar customs, mutual intelligibility of language, belief in a common or related identities, a common psychological make-up, and who inhabit an identifiable, predominantly contiguous territory.


(1) Every Ethiopian citizen has the right to the ownership of private property.

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