The principal end point of the study was mortality due to all causes. Secondary end points included cardiovascular mortality, the number of hospitalizations, the addition of vasodilators because of worsening heart failure, symptoms, and adverse reactions. In addition to evaluation of these end points in the trial as a whole, the effect of milrinone on survival was assessed in specific subgroups defined by the following 10 prognostically important variables recorded before randomization: left ventricular ejection fraction, cause of heart failure, New York Heart Association functional class, serum sodium concentration, serum creatinine concentration, age, sex, presence or absence of angina, cardiothoracic ratio, and presence or absence of ventricular tachycardia. The first three of these subgroup analyses were planned prospectively in the original protocol or at the first meeting of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board.


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