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Since the diagnosis of ADHD often coexists with conduct, oppositional–defiant, antisocial-personality, or substance-use disorder, it is not clear whether these disorders should be regarded as confounders, mediators, or colliders. Thus, to test whether the association between medication use and criminality was different depending on coexisting diagnoses, we performed a sensitivity analysis that included only patients without a diagnosis of a coexisting disorder.

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