In the 11th-12th centuries, astronomers in Al-Andalus took up the challenge earlier posed by , namely to develop an alternate non-Ptolemaic configuration that evaded the errors found in the . Like Ibn al-Haytham's critique, the anonymous Andalusian work, (), included a list of objections to Ptolemic astronomy. This marked the beginning of the Andalusian school's against Ptolemaic astronomy, otherwise known as the "Andalusian Revolt".


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