In the 1930's, communist organizations, including a legal defense organization called the International Labor Defense (ILD), became active in the anti-lynching cause (see The Communist Party and African-Americans). The ILD defended the Scottsboro Boys, and three black men accused of rape in Tuscaloosa in 1933. In the Tuscaloosa case, two of the defendants were lynched under circumstances that suggested police complicity, and the ILD lawyers themselves narrowly escaped lynching. Black Americans in general remained unreceptive toward communism, however, and the ILD lawyers aroused passionate hatred among many southerners. In a typical remark to an investigator, a white Tuscaloosan said, "For New York Jews to butt in and spread communistic ideas is too much."[17]


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