This paper has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union, under a project entitled, ‘Bioenergy, sustainability and trade-offs: Can we avoid deforestation while promoting bioenergy?’ Additional funding were also provided by CGIAR System wide on Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi) and Cordaid. The objective of the project is to contribute to sustainable bioenergy development that benefits local people in developing countries, minimizes negative impacts on local environments and rural livelihoods, and contributes to global climate change mitigation. The project is managed by Center for International Forestry Research and implemented in collaboration with the Council on Scientific and Industrial Research (South Africa), Joanneum Research (Austria), the Universidad Autónoma de México, and the Stockholm Environment Institute. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union and other donors. The authors would like to thank our project partners: Gusti Z. Anshari of Center for Wetlands People and Biodiversity of Tanjungpura University in Pontianak, West Kalimantan; Max Tokede of Papua State University in Manokwari, West Papua;Barnabas F Sedik of District Forestry Office of Boven Digoel, Papua and Habel Waridjo of District Agriculture Office of Boven Digoel, Papua for their kind collaboration on the project. We are also grateful to all staff affiliated with these institutions, who have taken part in field surveys, and to respondents from communities and oil palm companies. The authors would also like to thank the reviewers, especially Andrew Wardell, Director of CIFOR Forests and Governance Programme, Laura German and George Schoneveld for their candid assessment of earlier drafts of this paper.


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