Along with Declaration of Independence, Jefferson and Adams drafted the Articles of War for the new nation, and they simply retreaded the British laws when making it a crime for Americans to use “traitorous or disrespectful words” toward Congress or state legislatures. Adams made that proposed wartime crime a peacetime crime, soon after he came to office. Two laws were passed in 1798, which reflected Adams’s elitist views. The laws were the Alien Act and the Sedition Act. Adams and friends did not want revolutionaries from France, Ireland or, God forbid, , stirring up trouble, so the Alien Act authorized the summary deportations of “revolutionaries.” Adams did not use the Alien Act, but the Sedition Act was used effectively.


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