Exchangeable cations (see below) are a short-term storage pool that can rapidly replenish nutrient ions in the soil solution. Soil organic matter releases nutrients slowly as it decomposes, but is an important supply of N, P, S, B, and trace-metal micronutrients. Soil minerals vary from relatively soluble types (chlorides and sulfates) to insoluble forms (feldspars, apatite, mica) that release nutrients through weathering reactions with chemical and biochemical agents such as organic acids. Adsorbed anions, like phosphate and iron oxides bound to clay and organic matter surfaces, are held strongly and released very slowly, but can contribute to the long-term supply of plant-available nutrients.


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