Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is a critically important nutrient for all horses, and supplementation is especially important for horses with limited or no access to lush pastures. This vitamin is not synthesized by the horse; therefore, it is an essential dietary nutrient. It is the primary lipid-soluble antioxidant that maintains cell membrane integrity and enhances humoral- and cell-mediated immunity. Other metabolic roles of vitamin E have been reviewed by Brigelius-Flohe and Traber (1999).


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